Robusta coffee characteristics
Robusta coffee, also known as Robusta coffee. This coffee variety was first discovered in the countries of Africa. By the 1900s, Robusta coffee came to Southeast Asia officially.
Robusta coffee accounts for about 90% of the coffee growing area in Vietnam. Therefore, it is not difficult to understand why Vietnam has the largest export of Robusta coffee quantity in the world. Robusta is adaptable to weather and climate conditions easier than other coffee varieties. They usually live in basalt land areas with elevations below 1000m. Robusta coffee trees require heavy rainfall and high amounts of light.
Compared to Arabica coffee, Robusta has a smaller grain size. The proportion of caffeine in Robusta coffee is higher than Arabica coffee, this rate is about 2-4%. Therefore, Robusta has a stronger, harsher taste, not sweet and soft taste like Arabica coffee. Therefore, Robusta coffee is less prefer and is lower economic value than Arabica coffee.
However, many peoples do not like the original taste of any kind of coffee. They like the combination of flavors between different types of coffee in a certain proportion. That combination does not follow a specific, fixed formula. Depending on feeling, how to prepare each person that coffee has its own attractive flavor. Therefore, Robusta coffee still has its own place in the hearts of customers.
Robusta coffee in Lam Dong
Vietnamese coffee in general and especially Robusta coffee are currently processed by 3 main methods:
• Dry processing
• Wet processing
• Honey processing
In particular, the dry processing method is the oldest and most popular communication method. This is the simplest processing method, the most cost-effective. Therefore, dried coffee also has the lowest price.
Method of Dry processing Robusta in Viet Nam
With this method, Robusta Coffee harvested 70% ripe, picked up the foreign matter, brushwood,… Then, we wash and spread out to dry entirely. Coffee is dried on the high screen and shield carefully. Coffee beans was dried under sunshine directly from 1-3 weeks. During this time often have to rake several times a day to uniformly dry fruit, limit mold growth. At night, they pile of coffee, cover with canvas to avoid night dew. If the coffee layer is not spread evenly or is spread too thickly, the coffee fruit can be fermented by the enzyme in the fruit itself, which makes the coffee taste unpleasant later.
When the crust shrinks, hardens, and almost turns black. And the coffee moisture is reduced to 10-12%. At this point, the drying process is finished to move to the peeled step.
End of dry processing
The moment end of the drying process is the deciding factor for dry processing. Coffee fruit not dried enough that will be decreased quality (mold) by bacteria and mold. Meanwhile, coffee that is too dry (overdried) will become brittle and create more fragments during the grinding process (coffee beans may also break) during grinding.
Then, Coffee is collected and preserved in the warehouse carefully which ready for the next closed roast processing.
Characteristic of Dry robusta coffee processing
Advantages of natural dry processing
The process of accumulating nutrients in the seeds takes place slowly to make the seeds flavorful, bringing a sweet, less sour taste
Disadvantages of natural dry processing
The quality of coffee beans is heterogeneous because it depends on many factors such as weather factors, the level of sunlight, the length of time it takes to dry.
Conclusion – Robusta in Viet Nam
Robusta coffee is a type of coffee accounting for a large proportion of Vietnam’s coffee output. Currently, Robusta Vietnam is processed by natural dry processing mainly. Because this is the simplest and the oldest processing method. Although this is a simple method, it still requires thorough understanding and proper application. That makes the most delicious flavor for coffee beans. Understand the characteristics of Robusta coffee and the advantages – disadvantages of each processing method. Along with realizing the potential of Robusta Vietnam coffee. Our company has cooperated with Lam Dong farmers to develop that potential. Our products have the following quality criteria:
- Moisture: 12.5% max
- Black and broken beans ratio: 2% max
- Foreign matter ratio: 0.5% max
- Other beans rate: 0.5% max
- Minimum 90% on screen: screen 18/64 inches (7.1 mm)